On Saint Patrick's Day, 1947, CAE, then known as Canadian Aviation Electronics Ltd., was founded by Mr. Ken Patrick, an ex-Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) officer. His goal was to "...create something Canadian and take advantage of a war-trained team that was extremely innovative and very technology-intensive."From the beginning, some of Canada's best known industrialists formed the company's board of directors. In 1951, Mr. R. Fraser Elliot joined the board and became its Chairman two years later.
A new direction
The 1960s began with the award of two milestone contracts. The first was a military contract from the Canadian government for six F-104 Starfighter simulators. The F-104 program was the company's first experience with radar land mass simulation and the incorporation of a visual system, a motion system and a compact mission recorder. Within a five year span 26 additional units had be purchased by five other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries.
In the 70s, world airlines were hit hard by fuel shortages, environmental pressures, and government regulations. All these factors increased the airlines' need to train flight crews on simulators. The resulting business and CAE's approach of designing each simulator to a customer's specific needs generated substantial technological breakthroughs in control loading, motion systems, instructor consoles, and the diagnostics of complex software.
Meeting the challenge
In this decade, CAE expanded its international markets to the point of exporting approximately 85% of all production. Power simulators were sold for the first time in the U.S., while SCADA systems made their debut in China and Venezuela. Integrated Machinery Control Systems (IMCS) for naval vessels were introduced and sold in Canada and in the United States.
A decade of diversity
The 1990s saw CAE capitalize on the foundation laid down by Ken Patrick in 1947. In what was a pivotal decade, CAE grew in stature to become the preeminent world leader in the science of flight and systems simulation. As a result of advances made during this period, CAE became the world's leading designer and manufacturer of civil aircraft full flight simulators, flight training devices, visual systems, computer based trainers and computer assisted training systems.
The strategic 2000s
The advent of the new millennium crystallized the company's vision and lent it new resolve and focus. After decades as the world leader in the design and manufacture of simulation equipment, CAE was about to take bold steps to become a global leader in the provision of aviation training services. The year 2000 will be remembered in the annals of CAE history as the year the company announced plans to build a global training network —a move that would ultimately provide CAE with the unparalleled ability to offer customers the most comprehensive package of products and services available from anyone in the simulation and training industry.
The beginning On Saint Patrick's Day, 1947, CAE Electronics Ltd., then known as Canadian Aviation Electronics Ltd., was founded by Mr. Ken Patrick, an ex-Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) officer. His goal was to "....create something Canadian and take advantage of a war-trained team that was extremely innovative and very technology-intensive." From the beginning, some of Canada's best known industrialists formed the company's board of directors. In 1951, Mr. R. Fraser Elliot joined the board and became its Chairman two years later.
In its infancy, the company was located in a vacant aircraft hangar at the Saint-Hubert Airport. Counting a workforce of 18, CAE started to repair and overhaul ground communication equipment and install Antenna Farms in the Arctic for the RCAF. Within two years CAE was firmly established in the Canadian radio industry.1951 - CAE Western Division was established in Winnipeg to repair and overhaul telecommunications equipment and to develop and manufacture electronic instruments such as moisture meters for use in grain elevators, scintillometers (Geiger counters), proportional flow valves and radio receivers.1952 - The company entered the simulator business with a contract from the RCAF to develop a CF 100 flight simulator. Having no prior experience in this lightly specialized field, the company signed a seven year licensing agreement with Curtis Wright Corporation of the United States as a back up source of technology. During the CF 100 project, CAE developed new techniques in generated radar targets and weapons systems scoring, which greatly improved simulator accuracy. The RCAF contract was extended, and by late 1957, ten additional units had been delivered, including the company's first export order to the Belgian Air Force.1954 - The company focused its efforts on building Canada's largest group of technicians to support sales, installation, and maintenance of electronic devices. Systems Engineering Support (SES) and the repair and overhaul of the RCAF's MG-2s Airborne Radar/Fire Control systems were major activities at CAE. The MG-2 was expanded in the late 50s to a manufacturing science, which resulted in additional exports to Belgium. CAE's calibration service to military bases was reputed throughout Canada and Europe. This field of work would later evolve into a series of mobile calibration laboratories, which would provide repair and overhaul services to RCAF and RCN electronic equipment throughout Canada. Their use in the field made it unnecessary to transport delicate and expensive equipment to a central point for periodic calibration. This service continued to be a regular part of CAE's business until the early 80s.
A new plant in the Montreal suburb of Saint Laurent was established adjacent to Montreal's Dorval Airport, where 500 employees manufactured, modified or serviced everything from flight simulators to televisions, radios, hi-fidelity sets, radar equipment and SARAH, a search and rescue and homing system for the RCAF's nationwide rescue network.1955 - CAE began designing what would become the first Canadian built commercial flight simulator, an analog DC 6B for Canadian Pacific Airlines (CPA).1957 - Mr. J. F. Tooley was made president from 1957 to 1967. During this time he assessed the company's financial weak points and initiated a diversification program designed to focus the company's efforts on select product lines, making them more robust and less dependent on the defense electronics industry.
By the end of the 1950s, CAE's management decided that the development of specialized equipment and the manufacture of consumer goods did not mix. Consumer products were to be gradually phased-out.
Substantial efforts were poured into research and development programs leading to the company's debut in the data communication, digital simulation and Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) equipment markets. The installation of SAGE, a warning system in Europe, let to future international contracts.
By the end of the decade, CAE was an established simulator company employing 750 people in a plant that had been expanded by four test bays for simulators and their components.
A new direction The 1960s began with the award of two milestone contracts. The first was a military contract from the Canadian government for six F-104 Starfighter simulators. The F-104 program was the company's first experience with radar land mass simulation and the incorporation of a visual system, a motion system and a compact mission recorder. Within a five year span 26 additional units had be purchased by five other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries.
CAE's second milestone contract came from Trans Canada Pipelines for the development and installation of the world's first solid state supervisory control and telemetry system for a natural gas pipeline.1961 - CAE formed a dedicated group to develop compensators in MAD systems used for anti submarine warfare. The company quickly became a recognized leader in the field with the introduction of an Automatic Permanent Magnetic Compensator capable of counterbalancing magnetic interference fields found in patrol aircraft.
CAE Elektronik GmbH in Stolberg, West Germany, was established to maintain company built F-104 simulators delivered in Europe. Today this division provides maintenance, repair, overhaul and modification services for military flight simulators, and designs and builds sophisticated maintenance training aids for complex aircraft systems. CAE G, as the division is now known, also designs and manufactures communication equipment and systems for computer related telecommunications services, which are sold to government agencies throughout Western Europe.1962 - This year marked a major turn for the company, with a decision to change from analog to digital technology and to aggressively pursue commercial simulation business. Up until now CAE had secured prime contracts on the military front, however the growth opportunities in commercial flight meant an entirely new opportunity for expansion.1963 to 1965 - In 1963 the directors of Canadian Aviation Electronics Ltd. established a holding and management company named CAE Industries Ltd. to more accurately reflect the company's interests in expanding into other types of industry. CAE's expansion saw the acquisition of several companies, including: Northwest Industries Limited (commercial and military aircraft repair and overhaul), Canadian Bronze Company Limited, CAE Machinery Ltd. and USP Industries Inc.
For the first year CAE Industries Ltd. operated out of the St-Laurent plant. In 1964 it's offices were transferred to the Place Ville-Marie complex in Montreal's city core. In 1976, it moved once again to its present location in The Royal Bank Building in downtown Toronto.These years also saw CAE receive its first digital flight simulator order from Swissair. Shortly thereafter, Canadian Pacific Airlines, Air Canada and KLM ordered similar units from the company's rapidly expanding DC-8 and DC-9 simulation line.
Not to be left by the wayside, military flight and mission simulators also saw increased sales during this period with the RCAF becoming a prime customer for CAE's CP-107 Argus fully-integrated tactical anti-submarine mission aircraft. By 1965 the production and sale of flight simulators would account for 40% of all company activity.1966 - The company's newly minted and aggressively marketed Supervisory Control Systems were ordered by three different hydro utilities. Notably, CAE's milestone contract with Hydro Québec contract lead to the development of CAE's Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for power utilities and the DATAPATH® trademark. Born as a direct outgrowth of the company's expertise in flight simulation and its success at the beginning of the decade with its contract with Trans Canada Pipelines, CAE's SCADA systems began to be noticed by gas, oil and hydroelectric companies around the world and further milestone contracts were yet to come.1967 to 1968 - This period was highlighted by CAE's first simulator sale to an aircraft manufacturer in the United States - an L-1011 for Lockheed. The company also broke new ground by implementing its newly designed 6 degree of freedom motion system on a KLM Boeing 747 simulator.By 1968 the simulation field was making advances in two main areas. CAE pioneered the use of CRT displays in instructor stations, which greatly reduced the operator's workload. Visual systems, which used a TV camera to scan a scaled down model of an airport and its surrounding area, were also being developed.
During this period the company continued to break new ground in the SCADA field. Getty Oil of Bakersfield, California ordered a SCADA system to monitor the production of over 2,000 oil wells and the operation of more than 100 steam generators. This was CAE's first SCADA system to incorporate a general purpose digital computer.
In avionics, the company made advances by refining its MAD compensator from 3 terms to 9 terms. The system's success was reflected by the U.S. Navy's request to install the new compensators on their P 3C and S 2A aircraft. Over the span of the coming 10 years, CAE would deliver over 700 such operational units to the U.S. and other nations.1969 - Simulation technology was applied to a Boeing Vertol CH 47C helicopter for the Tactical Aircraft Guidance System (TAGS) contract. The goal of the TAGS program was to develop a control system, which would simplify the task of flying helicopters, and improve flight stability. When successfully completed in 1973, this joint U.S./Canadian project led to spin-offs such as helicopter simulators and the application of hand controller technology for the CAE-designed and built Canadarm Remote Manipulator System (RMS) in NASA's space shuttle program.
Product expansionIn the 70s, world airlines were hit hard by fuel shortages, environmental pressures, and government regulations. All these factors increased the airlines' need to train flight crews on simulators. The resulting business and CAE's approach of designing each simulator to a customer's specific needs generated substantial technological breakthroughs in control loading, motion systems, instructor consoles, and the diagnostics of complex software. The company continued to emphasize its capabilities in the SCADA field where there were growing requirements from the power utilities. In this decade, CAE was able to break into three new product areas: power plant training simulators, space programs, and Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems.
By the end of the decade the company had received a significant number of commercial and military flight simulator orders, had augmented its market share in the SCADA, MAD, and space fields, and had added three plant extensions and expanded its workforce to over 1,400 people.1970 - Four wide bodied commercial aircraft simulator orders were received. Notably, the British Airways Boeing 747 was the first unit to use a dual general purpose computer complex employing shared memory. This simulator featured a unique 4-degree of freedom motion system designed by CAE.
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), designer of the CANDU nuclear reactor, selected CAE to develop and manufacture a Direct Computer Control (DCC) system which would monitor and control all the major reactor and power plant functions of Ontario Hydro's Bruce 'A' plants.
This same year the name of the Montreal based electronics division of CAE Industries Ltd. was incorporated under the name, CAE Electronics Ltd., a change that would last until the year 2001.1971 - CAE's 6 degree of freedom motion system was rapidly gaining a global reputation for its fidelity and reliability, resulting in other simulator manufacturers ordering CAE's systems to meet their customers' demands. LMT (now Thompson CSF) acquired two motion systems, one of which was used on the Concorde simulator. Goodyear Aerospace also purchased motion systems for use on the USAF's F 15 simulators.1973 - Mr. N. Byron Cavadias assumed the management of CAE, redirecting the company's efforts towards the creation and assertive development of new market. Under his direction CAE embarked upon an extended period of steady growth. New product ideas were encouraged, eventually to result in the sale of Integrated Machinery Control Systems (IMCS), Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) systems, and space program devices. His aim was to keep the company at the forefront of technology and garner a reputation for quality, and excellence.
The year also marked CAE's entry into a new frontier with a contract to develop a CANDU power plant training simulator for Ontario Hydro's Pickering 'A' plant. Success with this first project prompted the utility to order four additional simulators. CAE also entered the ATC market with an order from the Canadian Ministry of Transport to supply Canada's seven operational area control centres with nine radar data processing and display systems collectively known as the Joint En-route/Terminal System (JETS). The experience gained in software modularity and testing through the JETS program led to CAE's own approach to traceability in control software and simulation software design. The JETS program was completed in 1980.1974 - Projects under contract included mechanized postal equipment for Canada Post Corporation and three new commercial simulators. The company adopted an aggressive attitude in pursuing flight simulator contracts, typified by its advertising slogan: "CAE - We make things happen".1975 - The mid-point of the decade was ushered in when Fokker-VFW BV of the Netherlands ordered a crew training simulator with a visual system for its F28 twin jet aircraft. This project enabled CAE became the first in the simulation field to implement a low-friction hydrostatic flight control-loading system with accurate digital/analog technology.
Efforts were also directed towards international military flight simulator markets. The company's moves in this area were rewarded when the Federal Republic of Germany ordered three helicopter simulators: an Mk 4 Sea King and two Sikorsky CH-53Gs. The company also received an order from Iran to manufacture a Boeing-Vertol CH-47C simulator with a CAE-designed model-board visual system.1976 - CAE's contracts with the Federal Republic of Germany also resulted in a major military deal to develop and manufacture a prototype simulator for the Tornado Multi-Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA). In 1979, this contract was extended to include six additional simulators, and in 1980, two similar units were ordered by the Italian Air Force. The Tornado project enabled CAE to develop advanced technologies in the area of full-mission simulation such as: G-systems for motion cueing, methods of harmonizing visual systems and digital radar landmass systems with on-board mission computers, radar systems, and the introduction of weapon delivery systems. The Tornado represented the first of a new generation of combat simulators, able to realistically reproduce actual wartime combat situations.
Other military contracts received included three Alpha Jet training simulators for the Federal Republic of Germany and a C-130 full-mission simulator for the Saudi Arabian government.
CAE was awarded its first space-related contract from SPAR Aerospace Limited to develop the SIMFAC simulator. This simulator was used to evaluate the Remote Manipulator System (RMS - also known as the Canadarm) and to train astronauts on its use. CAE also supplied control systems for the RMS. Each system consisted of a display and control panel with interface electronics, and two 3 degree of freedom hand controllers. The first system was a development model, while the others were to be used in actual space flight. One of these flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia in November 1981.
The company also secured a substantial military contract to develop and manufacture eight UH-1D helicopter simulators for the Federal Republic of Germany. These were the world's first rotary-wing flight training simulators to make use of the 6 degree of freedom motion systems. When the completed units were delivered in 1975, CAE was firmly entrenched as a world leader in helicopter simulation.1977 - Commercial simulator business picked up with four signed contracts. Trans World Airlines (TWA) became CAE's first U.S. commercial airline customer and the South American market was penetrated with a sale to Viasa.
CAE made a breakthrough enabling it to introduce the use of FORTRAN as the real time high level language for simulation software on 32 bit computers. The switch from Assembler to FORTRAN eased the task of maintaining and debugging simulation software.1978 - The decade of the 70s wound down with the company winning seven contracts. Orders were placed by Morocco for a C-130 Hercules military transport simulator and two AB 205 helicopter simulators. The Canadian Armed Forces also ordered a flight deck simulator and an operation mission simulator for their CP-140 long-range patrol aircraft.A major accomplishment in the avionics field was the introduction of CAE's Fully Automated Compensation System (FACS). This system automatically compensated up to 16 terms. The Canadian Armed Forces was the first customer to order 18 systems for installation on CP-140 aircraft. Interest in FACS lead to the U.S. Navy assigning CAE to develop a device which could be adapted to the 9-term compensators previously installed on their P-3C and S-2A aircraft. The Compensator Group Adapters (CGA) semi-automated the old systems, and installation of 700 units began the following year.
SCADA sales continued to advance with Hydro Québec purchasing a system for their James Bay site, the largest hydroelectric generating station in the world.1979 - The aerospace industry continued to grow, and CAE captured 50% of the world's commercial flight simulator market. The year's highest was CAE's delivery of the first fully hydrostatic motion system. This system is still unchallenged in terms of frequency response and reliability.
Of the nine commercial flight simulator orders confirmed, the sale to TOA Domestic Airlines marked CAE's first simulator sale to Japan.
Military flight simulator contracts included a Boeing E-3A unit for NATO and a flight simulator complex of two AB 212 transport helicopters for the Royal Saudi Air Force.
A space-related study contract was awarded by NASA to examine the feasibility of combining the two 3-axis hand controllers into a single device for one-handed control of the manipulator arm. Two years later, CAE successfully demonstrated the new 6-axis hand controller. In 1984, NASA ordered three systems.
A nuclear training simulator was purchased by Ontario Hydro for their Bruce 'A' station, and three SCADA systems were ordered by utilities for installation in North America and in Europe. Successful bids were made for the Cirene nuclear generating station project in Italy, and for the Darlington facility in Ontario. The third order was initiated by Hydro-Quebec for its La Citiere gas turbine power generating station.
Meeting the challenge
In this decade, CAE expanded its international markets to the point of exporting approximately 85% of all production. Power simulators were sold for the first time in the U.S., while SCADA systems made their debut in China and Venezuela. Integrated Machinery Control Systems (IMCS) for naval vessels were introduced and sold in Canada and in the United States.1980 - Among the 11 commercial flight simulator orders received, those from Eastern Airlines, Malaysian Airlines Systems, Korean Airlines, Lufthansa, and Piedmont Airlines (now USAir) were for first-time customers. Notably, Lufthansa's A310 contract accorded CAE the prestige of being the only simulator manufacturer with experience in all three types of 'glass cockpit' aircraft, the other being Boeing's 757 and 767 models.1981 - In the commercial simulator business three contracts were signed. Aeromexico became a new customer with an order jointly placed with Mexicana for a DC-10 series 15 simulator. One of the year's highlights was the introduction of a CAE-built weather radar simulator in a United Airlines Boeing 727 simulator. This device enabled crews to recognize storm patterns and to develop avoidance actions.
CAE's military flight simulator section received a contract from the Italian Army to develop and manufacture a complex of four Ab 205 helicopter simulators. The company was also awarded a major contract from the Canadian Armed Forces for three CF-18 Hornet fighter aircraft simulators. These highly advanced trainers required extensive development of new technology, particularly in the emulation of the many on-board computers. One of the simulators is stationed in Germany, and the other two in Canada. The simulator in Cold Lake, Alberta, was integrated with an innovative dome visual system.CAE also received a contract from the Canadian and American governments to develop a Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted visual Display (FOHMD) system for simulation applications. Because it incorporated fiber optics, CAE's helmet-mounted display produced brighter, full-color pictures, and a wider field-of-view than previous models which used black and white CRTs. Rockwell International and the U.S. Army each purchased CAE's new FOHMD system.
Work on the space program continued and CAE received an order from NASA for three additional RMS control systems.1982 - The year's highlight resulted when CAE's Boeing 727 simulator for United Airlines became the world's first commercial simulator to receive the new FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Phase III approval. This certification entitles the user to conduct initial, transition, and recurrency training of flight crews entirely via simulation.
The company won four simulator and three motion system contracts. New military business was awarded by the CF for a C-130H simulator and by the Royal Netherlands Navy for a P-3C maritime patrol Operating Flight Trainer (OFT).
In the avionics field, a total of 172 magnetic compensators were sold to the Canadian Armed Forces and U.S. Navy.
The company's nuclear power plant simulators were gaining recognition. As a result, Ontario Hydro joined forces with CAE to market the simulators to power utilities around the world. Before the year's end, Venezuela had ordered a SCADA system for their Guri hydroelectric power plant and Ontario Hydro had purchased a power plant simulator for their Pickering 'B' plant.1983 - Two major achievements in commercial aviation became this year's highlight. CAE became the first company to deliver an FAA approved flight simulator (Boeing 757 for Eastern Airlines) prior to that aircraft's certification. CAE was also first to manufacture a commercial simulator with digital control-loading and digital motion.
CAE's control systems broadened their horizon with a contract from the Canadian Department of National Defense to develop the Shipboard Integrated Machinery Control System (SHINMACS). This system featured 'glass control rooms' and has a distributed system architecture. The system was used to control and monitor a ship's propulsion, ancillary and auxiliary machinery as well as its electrical generation an distribution system. As evidence of the program's success, six Integrated Machinery Control Systems were later ordered for installation in the Canadian Navy's Patrol Frigates.
Ontario Hydro once again selected CAE to manufacture power plant simulators for their Bruce 'B' nuclear generating stations.1984 - Commercial simulator sales picked up with the signing of seven contracts. Alitalia's Boeing 747-200 simulator was that airline's first order to be placed with CAE.On the military side, six C-5B weapon system trainers were purchased by United Airlines Services Corporation for the USAF. Up to this point in time, this represented the largest single order for flight simulators ever placed with CAE. A unique project was also initiated by the Singapore Air Force with orders for A-4S and F-5E full flight simulators. This customer also purchased an air combat simulator complex consisting of two 30-foot diameter domes, each containing a generic fighter cockpit. The CAE-designed sky-earth projection system delivered the capability of handling two individual target models. The targets could represent the aircraft in the opposing dome, or a selection of computer and instructor-controlled aircraft types including a variable skill level 'intelligent' target.
CAE entered the U.S. power plant simulator market with a sale to Boston Edison Company for their Pilgrim plant. Two systems were also purchased by Florida Power and Light Company for their St. Lucie and Turkey Point plants.
The American-bought simulators were the first Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) simulators to be built by CAE. A CANDU power plant simulator was also purchased by Ontario Hydro for their Darlington 'A' plant, making it the fifth simulator ordered by that utility.
In the MAD field, the company maintained its position as world leader by introducing the Advanced Integrated MAD System (AIMS) for fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. CAE's AIMS is the only in-board system that is fully proven and in production. A first order for 36 units was placed by Grumman for installation in S-2s; shortly following, Sikorsky purchased 19 units to be installed on S-70 helicopters for use by the Australian Navy.1985 - Of the 15 commercial simulator contracts awarded in 1985, those signed by Trans Australian Airlines (now Australian Airlines) and by China Airlines marked CAE's penetration of two new geographic markets. Other new customers included Alia and the Boeing Aircraft Company.
A Crew Station Research Development Facility (CSRDF) was ordered by NASA's Ames Research centre and the U.S. Army. The simulator, used to study crew and cockpit configurations of the U.S. Army's LHX helicopter, was equipped with an FOHMD, multi-color touchscreen CRTs and a 4-axis sidearm controller. Another contract was awarded by the Canadian government, who required a Weapons System Software Unit (WSSU) for installation at Cold Lake to support validation of the CF-18 aircraft avionics and software changes. Canadair ordered a second WSSU in 1987 for installation at their CF-18 Systems Engineering Software (SES) contract facility.
The year also marked CAE's debut as a team member of the Canadian Space Station Program. The company's responsibilities included the robotics simulation systems and space-based control stations for the Mobile Servicing centre for use on the U.S. Space Station, Freedom.1986 - CAE signed 12 commercial simulator contracts and attracted USAir as a new customer. KLM also purchased a full flight simulator for Boeing's new 747-400 aircraft. This represented the eighth time since 1964 KLM had commissioned CAE to provide them with a simulator.
The Royal Netherlands Navy (RNN) bought a full-mission flight trainer for the Lynx helicopter to be used by four different countries: Holland, Germany, Denmark and Norway. This was the first simulator to incorporate CAE's blade-element rotor model, a software package that simulates the rotor and its associated components. The RNN also awarded CAE a contract to develop a P-3C Operational Tactics Trainer (OTT). On this project, CAE built an acoustic signal generator and a database management system to satisfy the navy's needs for a flexible training device.
CAE won a portion of the SES contract for the Canadian government's CF-18 program. This contract called for CAE to provide modifications to the aircraft's simulators, avionics equipment and its associated software, as well as to the automatic test equipment.
Control systems did very well with contracts for two SCADA systems. Contracts were also secured for an Energy Management System (EMS), three power plant simulators, and four machinery control systems. SCADA systems were sold in China for the Gezhouba hydro-electric power plant, and in the United States for the Grand Coulee Dam. CAE's first EMS was ordered by the Public Service Electric and Gas Utility in New Jersey. SCADA and EMS systems collect and analyze data and provide controls to optimize effective management of electric power generation and transmission facilities. Power plant simulators were sold to Hydro-Quebec and to the American companies Toledo Edison and Florida Power Corporation. The four machinery control systems were awarded by subcontract from Pratt & Whitney Canada for the navy's Tribal Class Update and Modernization Program (TRUMP).1987 - Of the eight commercial simulator orders received, two were from new customers: Braathens and Sabena. Lufthansa, a repeat customer, purchased a simulator for their Airbus A320.
On the military side, the Turkish Ministry of Defense purchased four UH-1H helicopter simulators, and the U.S. Army ordered a research Simulation Complexity Test Bed (SCTB) with two FOHMD visual systems. A military subcontract was also awarded from Oerlikon Aerospace Inc. to develop and install a Mobile Crew Station Trainer, a Crew Station Trainer and six Tactical Unit Trainers for the CF's Low Level Air Defense (LLAD) program.
CAE received a major order from the United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense for 242 AIMS systems.
The company's space program received another boost when Grumman Aerospace and Martin Marietta each ordered a 6-axis hand controller for future space-system development activities.1988 - CAE was successful in capturing three control systems sales. EMS systems were ordered for the Hebei Province in China, and by Grant County Public Utility District in Washington. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District purchased a power plant simulator for its Rancho Seco power plant.
The big event of the year was CAE Industries Ltd.'s acquisition of Link Domestic Simulation And Training Systems Division, making CAE the largest supplier of commercial and military flight simulators in the world.
Seventeen commercial flight simulators were ordered that year, accounting for over 60% of worldwide sales. New customers included McDonnell Douglas, Indian Airlines, and Aero Trasporti Italiani. Simulators for the MD-11 aircraft were purchased by McDonnell Douglas and by Swissair.
A military contract was awarded by the Canadian Armed Forces to develop a Radar System Test Station to complement the CF-18 WSSU located at the Canadian Forces Base in Cold Lake, Alberta.
The company received an IMCS order from Unisys (now part of Lockheed Martin) located in Reston, Virginia for the Osprey Class Minehunter MHC-51. This system was unique as it also complimented the ship's steering. A power plant simulator was also sold to The New Brunswick Electric Power Commission for the Pointe Lepreau plant.1989 - As of July of that year, eight flight simulators were ordered. CAE welcomed new clients into the fold: America West Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Finnair, Kuwait Airways Corp., and the RWL Flight Training centre. Simulators were also ordered by All Nippon Airways (ANA) and Lufthansa.
Two control system contracts were signed by new clients. Manitoba Hydro ordered a SCADA system and Iceland ordered an Oceanic Flight Data Processing System (OFDPS) for the Reykjavik Area Control centre. The system's features include Conflict Prediction and Flight Path Assurance Checking enabling optimum safety and increased traffic-handling capabilities over the heavily traveled Trans-Atlantic routes.
A decade of diversity
In the 1990s CAE capitalized on the foundation laid down by Ken Patrick in 1947. In what was arguably the company's most pivotal decade since its inception, CAE grew in stature to become the pre-eminent world leader in the science of flight and systems simulation. CAE captured 67 per cent of the commercial simulation market, 15 per cent of military, 9 per cent of energy control and power systems, and 9 per cent of MAD, space and other types of system contracts. As a result of advances made during this period, CAE became the world's leading designer and manufacturer of civil aircraft full-flight simulators, flight training devices, visual systems, computer-based trainers and computer assisted training systems. CAE simulators evolved and became renowned for their superior realism and accuracy in reproducing all of the operational characteristics of specific aircraft. Setting new industry standards in visual and motion systems, every situation, including all environmental conditions encountered in actual flight, were now simulated with precision and fidelity. CAE simulators now provided instructors the flexibility to select, monitor and change automated lesson plans and introduce simulated aircraft system malfunctions to ensure aircrews gain the necessary experience and proficiency needed to handle all operating conditions.1990 to 1991 The decade started with CAE securing a significant flight simulation milestone with the completion of the world's first MD-11 flight simulator for McDonnell Douglas Corp. This achievement was pivotal as it furthered the affirmation of CAE's position as the industry leader in flight simulation technology. As a result of this initial contract, CAE would go on to capture 11 of the 12 MD-11 flight simulator contracts up for award that year.
In addition to supplying flight simulators representing the entire range of civil aircraft, including many regional aircraft types, CAE also emerged as a major force in military simulation. During this formative period, the company's military simulation production expanded to include a wide variety of flight, tactical and full-mission simulators for both fixed and rotary wing aircraft. These ranged from the most advanced fighters and helicopters, to heavy transport and patrol aircraft. CAE also supplied tactical simulators for anti-submarine warfare, electronic warfare, radar and other mission training applications.1992 to 1994 Continuing the trend for industry milestones, in 1992 CAE made dramatic strides in the field of flight simulation visuals with the introduction of the company's CAE MAXVUE' system. With its use of computer-generated imagery, CAE's MAXVUE ushered in a revolutionary new generation of display generators paving the way for today's industry-leading CAE Tropos' and CAE Atmos' systems. On the heels of its selection as the designer of the first MD-11 simulator, CAE was awarded a contract by Boeing to design the world's first B777 full-flight simulator for the newly introduced wide-bodied twin-jet aircraft. This project further solidified CAE's ongoing relationship with Boeing in the development of aerospace technology.
On the power simulation front, CAE notched its first European sale of power-plant simulation equipment, landing a contract award for two full-scope fossil-fuel-fired power station simulators for the Electricity Supply Board of Dublin, Ireland. This beachhead would serve to open the door for further contracts.
While these years were marked with several industry firsts, they were also the culmination of CAE's development of the U.S. Army's Research Institute's Simulator Complexity Testbed (SCTB). This multi-million dollar program, which was jointly funded under the U.S./Canada Defence Development Sharing Program, provided the U.S. military with the development of training methods for helicopter aircrews.1995 to 1996 At the mid-point of the decade CAE made history when the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) accepted delivery of the CAE-designed and developed mobile servicing system operation training simulator, better known as MOTS. With the CSA being an integral player in the construction of the international space station, CAE's MOTS would go on to serve as a vital astronaut training ground, further cementing CAE's reputation as a world leader in innovative technological solutions.1997 CAE was selected to provide six full-flight simulators for the U.K. Ministry of Defence's Royal Air Force fleet of medium support helicopters. CAE and its subcontractors would build, equip, operate and finance a state-of-the-art training centre for the helicopter program for a 20-year period, with an option for an additional 20 years. The centre, currently houses simulators for Chinook, Merlin and Puma helicopters, as well as a tactical control centre to govern pilot training and simulated missions.1998 to 1999 - The company closed out the decade by securing two of its largest marine contracts to date. One of the projects was with the U.S. Navy and entailed the development and supply of engineering control systems governing propulsion, auxiliary, electrical and battle damage control for the LPD-176 amphibious class ship. This project would continue into the new millennium.
The other project consisted of a contract with Marconi Marine (VSEL) of England, which selected CAE to provide the controls and instrumentation for the Royal Navy's Astute Class attack submarines. With a value of $75 million the award capped off an impressive series of successes for the Marine division, which has become a leading provider of advanced automation technology.Other projects
The 1990s was also a decade of change and exploration for the company.
In 1995, CAE-Link Corporation was sold to Hughes Electronics Corporation of Los Angeles for US$155 million. CAE-Link built the first AH-64 combat mission simulator, a F-117A stealth fighter simulator and operated the C-130 aircrew training system. CAE-Link was divested mainly due to the contraction in U.S. defence spending in the post-Cold War era.
In the late 1990s, CAE's distribution management system (DMS) was sold to S.N.C. Lavalin. DMS gained a global reputation for performance, flexibility and scalability, with integrated SCADA and sophisticated network control and analysis applications.
Also, during this period, CAE entered into two short-lived projects for which the company had high hopes.
The first was the development of the Envirostrip'; a bio-degradable, resource-friendly paint stripping technology that made use of abrasive micro pellets for the stripping of paint from aircraft exteriors. Developed under an agreement with ADM/Ogilvie, the process was highly regarded for its environmentally conscious approach to aircraft cleaning solutions. However, it met with limited success in the marketplace and the venture was eventually abandoned.
The second was the manufacturing of artificial hearts. Officially known as the Electrohydraulic Venticular Assist Device (or EVAD), the project was a joint development between CAE and the University of Ottawa Heart Institute, the developer of the device. CAE agreed to manufacture prototypes for the Institute with the aim of establishing their use as an interim transplant-bridge device designed to sustain patients waiting for donors. In spite of its noble objectives, the project failed to develop into a meaningful venture and was subsequently discontinued.Looking Ahead As the twentieth century drew to a close, CAE remained poised to continue its progress in the global simulation field. The company would usher in the new millennium by winning the landmark Eurofighter contract. With this contract CAE would supply 31 flight simulators of varying configurations for the new EF-2000 fighter jet. As a result, CAE's simulators would serve as trainers for fighter pilots from the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Spain.
With a number of major technological advances throughout the decade, and by continuously evaluating new hardware and software technologies, CAE continued to maintain the most sophisticated and cost effective technical simulator solutions in the business. This, along with numerous industry firsts, has kept CAE at the forefront in the evolution and delivery of superior flight and systems simulation technology.Continuing a Legacy of Excellence
During the course of the 1990s, CAE was helmed by six presidents: Byron Cavadias, Ken Hansell, Rusi Master, John Caldwell, Jim Cherry, and Derek H. Burney, who assumed the role of CAE's President and Chief Executive Officer in October 1999. Each complimented CAE's advances with their own distinct vision as the company re-defined its objectives for the new millennium.
Since its inception, CAE has become a truly global company. From its humble beginnings in an airport hangar at Saint Hubert airport, CAE now exports 90 per cent of its products to over 50 countries and is a world-leader in numerous fields.
The strategic 2000s
The advent of the new millennium crystallized the company's vision and lent it new resolve and focus. After decades as the world leader in the design and manufacture of simulation equipment, CAE was about to take bold steps to become a global leader in the provision of aviation training services. The year 2000 will be remembered in the annals of CAE history as the year the company announced plans to build a global training network—a move that would ultimately provide CAE with the unparalleled ability to offer customers the most comprehensive package of products and services available from anyone in the simulation and training industry. Through organic growth and strategic acquisitions, CAE's training organization grew rapidly during this decade. The company opened its own training centres in locations such as Sao Paulo and Toronto. Next came acquisitions aimed at accelerating CAE's global training footprint. With the purchase of Netherlands-based Schreiner Aviation Training in 2001, CAE became the world's second largest independent provider of aviation training services. A year later, the acquisition of SimuFlite quickly catapulted the company into business aviation training. All the while, CAE was establishing strategic training partnerships and alliances with airlines around the world, including Emirates, Alitalia, Iberia, LATAM, Air Asia, Cebu Pacific and China Southern, and with major aircraft manufacturers like Airbus, Embraer, Bombardier and Dassault.
In 2006, CAE formally launched a network of ab initio flight schools which quickly became the largest in the world. Following the acquisition of Oxford Aviation Academy in 2012, the CAE Oxford Aviation Academy was comprised of 11 locations with a capacity to train 2,000 cadets annually. These initiatives have made CAE's civil training and services unit the industry powerhouse it is today-global in every sense with a network of 44 training centres on five continents, and more than 210 simulators serving airlines, operators and aircraft manufacturers. More than 100,000 pilots and crews train each year with CAE. In just a few short years, the company has earned a reputation for uncompromising quality and expertise for training delivered close to the customer and customized to meet their unique requirements.
While CAE was expanding into aviation training, the company also recognized its military simulation and training unit had untapped potential. Namely, CAE needed a presence in the United States, by far the world's largest defence market. In 2001, CAE acquired Florida-based BAE SYSTEMS Flight Simulation and Training to provide CAE improved access to U.S. military opportunities. The move found early success as the renamed CAE USA won a contract with the U.S. Army's elite 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, the famed Night Stalkers, to provide the world's first A/MH-6 Little Bird helicopter simulator. Over the next several years, CAE's military business in the United States doubled as the company built on its relationship with the 160th and won key programs for U.S. Navy helicopter simulators and U.S. Air Force C-130J training systems. The company also established key relationships with major manufacturers like Lockheed Martin and Boeing, with the latter awarding CAE its Outstanding Supplier Award in 2006. At the same time, other parts of CAE's military business began to flourish. In the U.K., the world's first military training private finance initiative began operational training at CAE's Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility. CAE Gmbh in Stolberg, Germany continued to thrive with key positions on European multi-national programs such as Eurofighter and NH90. CAE Australia established CAE as a key player "down under" as the company became an authorized engineering organization for supporting a range of Australian Defence Forces flight simulators. And now CAE's military business makes up approximately 50% of CAE's revenues. No company in the simulation industry can match CAE's thirst for continuous technological innovation and its applications as evidenced by the company's expansion into New Core Markets such as healthcare and mining. CAE Healthcare offers cutting-edge learning tools and innovative simulation solutions to healthcare professionals, allowing them to develop practical experience on multiple simulation platforms before testing their skills on patients. CAE's acquisition of METI in 2011 secured its position as the worldwide leader in medical simulation technologies and educational software. By combining expertise in mining optimization software tools and services with CAE's 60-year experience in modelling, simulation and training, CAE Mining is introducing simulation-based training in an industry where safety and operational efficiency are paramount and growth in both these areas is expected in the future.